Le Livre des Morts
Le livre des morts et le livre que était placé par les Egyptiens, près de leurs morts . Ce livre est en quelque sorte "un guide" pour les morts afin qu'ils n'oublient rien qui pourait remettre en question leurs accés à la vie éternelle ...
"Thou art the Great Chief, the first among thy brethren,
the Prince of the Company of the Gods, the stablisher of Right and Truth
throughout the World, the Son who was set on the great throne of his father
Keb. Thou art the beloved of thy mother Nut, the mighty one of valour,
who overthrew the Sebau-fiend. Thou didst stand up and smite thine enemy,
and set thy fear in thine adversary. Thou dost bring the boundaries of
the mountains. Thy heart is fixed, thy legs are set firm. Thou art the
heir of Keb and of the sovereignty of the Two Lands (Egypt). He (Keb) hath
seen his splendours, he hath decreed for him the guidance of the world
by thy hand as long as times endure. Thou hast made this earth with thy
hand, and the waters, and the winds, and the vegetation, and all the cattle,
and all the feathered fowl, and all the fish, and all the creeping things,
and all the wild animals therof. The desert is the lawful possession of
the son of Nut. The Two Lands (Egypt) are content to crown thee upon the
throne of thy father, like Ra.
His sister [Isis] hath protected him, and hath repulsed the fiends, and turned aside calamities (of evil). She uttered the spell with the magical power of her mouth. Her tongue was perfect, and it never halted at a word. Beneficent in command and word was Isis, the woman of magical spells, the advocate of her brother. She sought him untiringly, she wandered round and round about this earth in sorrow, and she alighted not without finding him. She made light with her feathers, she created air with her wings, and she uttered the death wail for her brother. She raised up the inactive members of whose heart was still, she drew from him his essence, she made an heir, she reared the child in loneliness, and the place where he was not known, and he grew in strength and stature, and his hand was mighty in the House of Keb. The Company of the Gods rejoiced, rejoiced, at the oming of Horus, the son of Osiris, whose heart was firm, the triumphant, the son of Isis, the heir of Osiris."
Following is a list of frequently-mentioned geographical locations, and their commonly-known names:
A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN:
Behold, the Osiris Ani, the scribe of the holy offerings of all the gods, saith: Homage to thee, O thou who hast come as Khepera, Khepera the creator of the gods, Thou art seated on thy throne, thou risest up in the sky, illumining thy mother [Nut], thou art seated on thy throne as the king of the gods. [Thy] mother Nut stretcheth out her hands, and performeth an act of homage to thee. The domain of Manu receiveth thee with satisfaction. The goddess Maat embraceth thee at the two seasons of the day. May Ra give glory, and power, and thruth-speaking, and the appearance as a living soul so that he may gaze upon Heru-khuti, to the KA of the Osiris the Scribe Ani, who speaketh truth before Osiris, and who saith: Hail, O all ye gods of the House of the Soul, who weigh heaven and earth in a balance, and who give celestial food [to the dead]. Hail, Tatun, [who art] One, thou creator of mortals [and] of the Companies of the Gods of the South and of the North, of the West and of the East, ascribe ye praise to Ra, the lord of heaven, the KING, Life, Strength, and Health, the maker of the gods. Give ye thanks unto him in his beneficent form which is enthroned in the Atett Boat; beings celestial praise thee, beings terrestial praise thee. Thoth and the goddess Maat mark out thy course for thee day by day and every day. Thine enemy the Serpent hath been given over to the fire. The Serpent-fiend Sebau hath fallen headlong, his forelegs are bound in chains, and his hind legs hath Ra carried away from him. The Sons of Revolt shall never more rise up. The House of the Aged One keepeth festival, and the voices of those who make merry are in the Great Place. The gods rejoice when they see Ra crowned upon his throne, and when his beams flood the world with light. The majesty of this holy god setteth out on his journey, and he goeth onwards until he reacheth the land of Manu; the earth becometh light at his birth each day; he proceedeth until he reacheth the place where he was yesterday. O be thou at peace with me. Let me gaze upon thy beauties. Let me journey above the earth. Let me smite the Ass. Let me slit asunder the Serpent-fiend Sebau. Let me destroy Aepep at the moment of his greatest power. Let me behold the Abtu Fish at his season, and the Ant Fish with the Ant Boat as it piloteth it in its lake. Let me behold Horus when he is in charge of the rudder [of the Boat of Ra], with Thoth and the goddess Maat on each side of him. Let me lay hold of the tow-rope of the Sektet Boat, and the rope at the stern of the Matett Boat. Let Ra grant to me a view of the Disk (the Sun), and a sight of Ah (the Moon) unfailingly each day. Let my Ba-soul come forth to walk about hither and thither and whithersoever it pleaseth. Let my name be called out, let it be found inscribed on the tablet which recordeth the names of those who are to receive offerings. Let meals from the sepulchral offerings be given to me in the presence [of Osiris], as to those who are in the following of Horus. Let there be prepared for me a seat in the Boat of the Sun on the day wheron the god saileth. Let me be received in the presence of Osiris in the Land of Truth-speaking- the Ka of Osiris Ani.
NEKHT, THE CAPTAIN OF SOLDIERS, THE ROYAL SCRIBE, SINGETH
A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA, and saith:- Homage to thee, O thou glorious Being,
thou who art dowered [with all sovereignty]. O Tem-Heru-Khuti (Tem-Harmakhis),
when thou risest in the horizon of heaven a cry of joy goeth forth to thee
from all people. O thou beautiful Being, thou dost renew thyself in thy
season in the form of the Disk, within thy mother Hathor.
Therefore in every place every heart swelleth with joy at thy rising for
ever. The regions of the South and the North come to thee with homage,
and send forth acclamations at thy rising on the horizon of heaven, and
thou illuminest the Two Lands with rays of turquoise-[coloured] light.
O Ra, who art Heru-Khuti, the divine man-child, the heir of eternity, self-begotten
and self-born, king of the earth, prince of the Tuat (the Other World),
governor of Aukert, thou didst come from the Water-god, thou didst spring
from the Sky-god Nu, who doth cherish thee and order thy members. O thou
god of life, thou lord of love, all men live when thou shinest; thou art
crowned king of the gods. The goddess Nut embraceth thee, and the goddess
Mut enfoldeth thee at all seasons. Those who are in thy following sing
unto thee with joy, and they bow down their foreheads to the earth when
they meet thee, the lord of heaven, the lord of the earth, the King of
Truth, the lord of eternity, the prince of everlastingness, thou sovereign
of all the gods, thou god of life, thou creator of eternity, thou maker
of heaven wherin thou art firmly stablished.
HYMN TO OSIRIS UN-NEFER
A Hymn of Praise to Osiris Un-Nefer, the great god who dwelleth in Abtu, the king of eternity, the lord of everlastingness, who traverseth millions of years in his existence. Thou art the eldest son of the womb of Nut. Thou was begotten by Keb, the Erpat. Thou art the lord of the Urrt Crown. Thou art he whose White Crown is lofty. Thou art the King (Ati) of gods [and] men. Thou hast gained possession of the sceptre of rule, and the whip, and the rank and dignity of thy divine fathers. Thy heart is expanded with joy, O thou who art in the kingdom of the dead. Thy son Horus is firmly placed on thy throne. Thou hast ascended thy throne as the Lord of Tetu, and as the Heq who dwelleth in Abydos. Thou makest the Two Lands to flourish through Truth-speaking, in the presence of him who is the Lord to the Uttermost Limit. Thou drawest on that which hath not yet come into being in thy name of "Ta-her-sta-nef." Thou governest the Two Lands by Maat in thy name of "Seker." Thy power is wide-spread, thou art he of whom the fear is great in thy name of "Usar" (or "Asar"). Thy existence endureth for an infinite number of double henti periods in thy name of "Un-Nefer." Homage to thee, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, and Prince of Princes. Thou hast ruled the Two Lands from the womb of the goddess Nut. Thou hast governed the Lands of Akert. Thy members are of silver-gold, thy head is of lapis-lazuli, and the crown of thy head is of turquoise. Thou art An of millions of years. Thy body is all pervading, O Beautiful Face in Ta-tchesert. Grant thou to me glory in heaven, and power upon earth, and truth-speaking in the Divine Underworld, and [the power to] sail down the river to Tetu in the form of a living Ba-soul, and [the power to] sail up the river to Abydos in the form of a Benu bird, and [the power to] pass in through and to pass out from, without obstruction, the doors of the lords of the Tuat. Let there be given unto me bread-cakes in the House of Refreshing, and sepulchral offerings of cakes and ale, and propitiatory offerings in Anu, and a permanent homestead in Sekhet-Aaru, with wheat and barley therein- to the Double of the Osiris, the scribe Ani.
THE CHAPTERS OF COMING FORTH BY DAY
HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS OF COMING FORTH BY DAY, AND THE SONGS OF PRAISING AND GLORIFYING WHICH ARE TO BE RECITED FOR "COMING FORTH" AND FOR ENTERING INTO KHERT-NETER, AND THE SPELLS WHICH ARE TO BE SAID IN BEAUTIFUL AMENTET. THEY SHALL BE RECITED ON THE DAY OF THE FUNERAL, ENTERING IN AFTER COMING FORTH.
The Osiris Ani, the Osiris the scribe Ani saith:- Homage to thee, O Bull of Amentet, Thoth the king of eternity is with me. I am the great god by the side of the divine boat, I have fought for thee, I am one of those gods, those divine chiefs, who proved the truth-speaking of Osiris before his enemies on the day of the weighing of words. I am thy kinsman Osiris. I am [one of] those gods who were the children of the goddess Nut, who hacked in pieces the enemies of Osiris, and who bound in fetters the legion of Sebau devils on his behalf. I am thy kinsman Horus, I have fought on thy behalf, I have come to thee for thy name's sake. I am Thoth who proved the truth of the words of Osiris before his enemies on the day of the weighing of words in the great House of the Prince, who dwelleth in Anu. I am Teti, the son of Teti. My mother conceived me in Tetu, and gave birth to me in Tetu. I am with the mourners [and with] the women who tear out their hair and make lament for Osiris in Taui-Rekhti, proving true the words of Osiris before his enemies. Ra commanded Thoth to prove true the words of Osiris before his enemies; what was commanded [for Osiris], let that be done for me by Thoth. I am with Horus on the day of dressing Teshtesh. I open the hidden water-springs for the ablutions of Urt-ab. I unbolt the door of the Shetait Shrine in Ra-stau. I am with Horus as the protector of the left shoulder of Osiris, the dweller in Sekhem. I enter in among and I come forth from the Flame-gods on the day of the destruction of the Sebau fiends in Sekhem. I am with Horus on the day[s] of the festivals of Osiris, at the making of offerings and oblations, namely, on the festival which is celebrated on the sixth day of the month, and on the day of the Tenat festival in Anu. I am the UAB priest (libationer) in Tetu, Rera, the dweller in Per-Asar. I exalt him that is upon the high place of the country. I look upon the hidden things (the mysteries) in Ra-stau. I recite the words of the liturgy of the festival of the Soul-god in Tetu. I am the SEM priest, and [perform] his duties. I am the UR-KHERP-HEM priest on the day of placing the Henu Boat of Seker upon its divine sledge. I have taken in my hand the digging tool on the day of digging up the earth in Hensu. Hail, O ye who make perfect souls to enter into the House of Osiris, make ye the well-instructed soul of the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is true, to enter in and to be with you in the House of Osiris. Let him hear even as ye hear; let him have sight even as ye have sight; let him stand up even as ye stand up; let him take his seat even as ye take your seats.
Hail, O ye who give cakes and ale to perfect souls in the House of Osiris, give ye cakes and ale twice each day (in the morning and in the evening) to the soul of the Osiris Ani, whose word is true before the gods, the Lords of Abydos, and whose word is true with you. Hail, O ye who open up the way, who act as guides to the roads [in the Other World] to perfect souls in the House of Osiris, open ye up for him the way, and act ye as guides to the roads to the soul of the Osiris, the scribe, the registrary of all the offerings made to the gods, Ani, [whose word is true] with you. May he enter the House of Osiris with boldness, and may he come forth therefrom in peace. May there be no opposition made to him, and may he not be sent back [therefrom]. May he enter in under favour [of Osiris], and may he come forth gratified [at the acceptance of] his true words. May his commands be performed in the House of Osiris, may his words travel with you, may he be glorious as ye are. May he be not found to be light in the Balance, may the Balance dispose of his case.
(In the Turin Papyrus, ed. Lepsius, this Chapter ends with the following.)
Permit thou not me to be judged according to the mouths
of the multitude. May my soul lift itself up before [Osiris], having been
found to have been pure when on earth. May I come into thy presence, O
Lord of the gods; may I arrive at the Nome of Maati (Truth); may I rise
up on my seat like a god endowed with life; may I give forth light like
the Company of the Gods who dwell in heaven; may I become like one of you;
may I lift up my footsteps in the town of Kher-Aha; may I look upon the
Sektet Boat of the god, Saah, the holy one, as it passeth across the sky;
may I not be repulsed; may I look upon the Lords of the Tuat, or, according
to another reading, the Company of the Gods; may I smell the savour of
the divine food of the Company of the Gods; may I sit down with them; may
my name be proclaimed for offerings by the KHER-HEB priest at the sacrificial
table; may I hear the petitions which are made when offerings are presented;
may I draw nigh unto the Neshem Boat; and may neither my Heart-soul nor
its lord be repulsed. Homage to thee, O Chief of Amentet, thou god Osiris,
who dwellest in the town of Nifu-ur. Grant thou that I may arrive in peace
in Amentet. May the Lords of Ta-Tchesert receive me, and may they say unto
RUBRIC: If this text be known [by the deceased] upon earth or if he causeth it to be done in writing upon [his] coffin, then will he be able to come forth on any day he pleaseth, and to enter into his habitation unrepulsed. Cakes and ale and joints of meat from those which are on the altar of Ra shall be given unto him, and his homestead shall be among the fields of the Field of Reeds (Sekhet-Aaru), and wheat and barley shall be given unto him therein, and he shall flourish there even as he flourished upon earth.